«Pryima Grotto» (Neanderthal cave)
This is the second Neanderthal settlement that was found in Ukraine and is an archeological site of European importance.
Pryima Grotto, unique in its beauty and history, is located 2 km from Mykolaiv, Lviv region. According to archeologists, the remains of the ancient settlement, in particular its caves, have been preserved near Mykolaiv.
The area near Mykolaiv is shrouded with secrets which still don't have unambiguous interpretation. For example, there is a version that the caves around the city, including Pryima Grotto, are connected in a chain, but this idea has not yet been fully confirmed or studied by archaeologists.
The «settlement»of our Neanderthal ancestors has been found in this area relatively recently, but its origin is about 46 thousand years. Settlement of the «hunting camp» type was found there. The approximate area of the settlement is 5x5 meters.
At first glance, the grotto impresses with its uniqueness. It is as if it was built on the bones of some giants, or as if trees have grown into it. The grotto consists of three levels. The lowest has no caves. The two higher ones have small, habitable spaces. A little further away is another small cave.
Experts consider this settlement to be one of the oldest in Ukraine. During archeological excavations, the remains of former inhabitants were found in the cave. According to one version, these are the remains of one Neanderthal (female), according to another —several. A total of 7 archaeological artifacts were found. Archaeologists also found the remains of burnt wood, which indicates the use of fire by the inhabitants of the grotto.
This is the first Neanderthal found in Halychyna. This proves that these lands were inhabited by people. They lived in caves, ate animal meat, and made spears with stone tips. Archaeologists found all these things in Pryima-1grotto.
It is believed that the terrain surrounding Pryima grotto was favorable for hunting, especially for herd animals. According to many researchers, hunters of that time used the cave to live in winter, and led a nomadic lifestyle in the warm season.
«Charity home for orphans and the poor»
Founded in 1843 by patron, traveler, and philanthropist Stanislav Skarbek, the building was a real palace. The building had been under construction for a very long time and the founder himself never saw it ready—Skarbek died in 1848, and his shelter was opened only in 1875.
Now the palace houses one of the regional psychiatric hospitals—Communal Noncommercial Enterprise of Lviv Regional Council Lviv Regional Psychiatric Hospital «Zaklad»—in the village of Zaklad, Mykolaiv district. This is the name of a small village near Mykolaiv. Today there are only 300 inhabitants, and the name «Zaklad» is used for «Charity home for orphans and the poor».
The palace in Zaklad was built in the English Neo-Renaissance style. In addition to the main П-shaped building, there are several cottages, a greenhouse, and a lake with a park. In the past, up to 1,000 orphans and elders lived in this shelter almost in a lordly manner and were brought up strictly in the Catholic spirit. They were provided with education, treatment, food, housing, and work.
To provide for the shelter, Skarbek had to bequeath to it a theater built by him in Lviv (now the Maria Zankovetska Theater), his own menagerie, three towns, and 28 villages.
Today «Zaklad» looks abandoned and has not been restored for a long time. There used to be a chapel in the Zaklad Forest, where the founder of the shelter Stanislav Skarbek was buried. But since Soviet times, the chapel has been destroyed and desecrated by looters.
The medieval settlement on the territory of Western Ukraine is located along the eastern outskirts of the villages of Stilsko, Dubrova, and Iliv in Mykolaiv district, Lviv region. It was founded in the VII century.
Approximate golden age — IX-X centuries. At this time, the city had a population of about 45 thousand inhabitants. According to the assumptions of the researcher Orest Korchynskyi, until 993 the settlement could be the capital of White Croatia, and then — part of the Kyivan Rus'. The settlement finally fell into decline as a result of hostilities until the XIV century.
From the early 1980s, the Upper Dnister Archaeological Expedition of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine under the direction of Orest Korchynskyi began researching the monuments of Northern Croats in Upper Transnistria. Among those discovered is a historical and cultural complex with the center-settlement of the IX-XI centuries in the village of Stilske. It covers a large area of Bibrsko-Stilska Upland (part of Opillia).
As a result of archaeological research, it was found that on the plateau above the modern village in the IX — early XI centuries, there was a large city with the area of 250 hectares, and with the length of the defensive walls of about 10 km. This is indicated by the powerful earthen ramparts surrounded by ditches and artificially built terraces that ran in several rows around the ancient castle. The height of fortifications built on the model of Serpent's Wall ranged from 7 to 10 meters.
In one of the passages to the city, a stone pavement was excavated, which was called the «White Road» according to an ancient legend. According to the legend, an underground city was located deep under the settlement. The mentioned researcher claims the presence of underground labyrinths here, possibly of man-made origin. Around detinets, there were fortified suburbs where several dozen housing and craft facilities and estates of some wealthy citizens were excavated. Remains of stone stoves, numerous samples of circular and stucco utensils, everyday objects, and weapons were found on the floors of the houses destroyed by fire. Archaeologists have explored a dense network of settlements, places of worship, and necropolises in close vicinity of the city. The ancient city was connected to the river Dnister by an 11 km long waterway built in the IX century on the river Kolodnytsia.
Centers of pagan cult were discovered and studied by archaeologists on the outskirts of Stilsko and in neighboring villages: Dubrova, Iliv, Velyka Volya, and near the city of Mykolaiv. In some of them pagan temples and sacrificial pits, where the remains of sacrifices were found, were examined.
On September 15, 2015, the Lviv Regional Council voted for the creation of the Stilske Horodyshche (Stilske Settlement) Historical and Cultural Reserve. It is currently included in the archeological monument of national importance «Horodyshche» according to the register №130019-Н.
The unique monument of the city of Mykolaiv was built in 2002. The author of «Pysanka» is Lviv architect Kostiantyn Maliarchuk. A special place was chosen for the location of the unusual monument. This is a famous and unapproachable mountain called «Vysokyi Kamin» (High Stone) by locals. The stone place stands out against the plain landscape of the city. To get to the top, you need to overcome a height of several tens of meters. The peculiarity of the mountain's terrain does not allow driving on it by car or other transport.
It is for this reason that «Vysokyi Kamin» (High Stone) Mountain was chosen for the monument. To get inside the chapel, you have to walk along a narrow path and reach the very top of the place. The Stations of the Cross are on the way to the chapel.
The architecture of the building is the most fascinating. The chapel is made in the form of a large painted Easter egg—«pysanka». The chosen ornament is an ancient sacred pattern. The beautiful building, topped by a large Christian cross, can be seen at a distance of several kilometers.
Complex of fortifications and engineering constructions «Fortress of Mykolaiv»
The complex of defensive fortifications was created in 1910—1914 on the territory of the modern city of Mykolaiv in the Lviv region to protect the crossing of the riverDnister. The fortress also covered the road to Lviv (defile between the hills), which was fired on both sides with machine guns and artillery from closed positions. Both lines of the bridgehead (tête de pont) were securely covered from the flanks. Field fortifications were built near the ancient settlement of Drohovyzh on Mount Struzhna, where old ramparts of the settlement were also used. A number of field fortifications also stretched along Kolodnytsia from the side of Stilsko and Iliv.
The fortress consisted of four groups of fortifications (also known as "forts"), which housed eight artillery batteries equipped with heavy 150 mm Berg howitzers of 1899. Fort № 1 in the area of Tarandov, to the left of the road to Lviv, contained four batteries. Fort № 2 in the area of Uhliaryshche, to the right of the road to Lviv, contained two batteries. Two batteries of Fort № 3 have not survived to this day as they were completely destroyed by quarries. Fort № 4, which was supposed to be located on Mount Vysokyi Kamin, was not completed.
The batteries were placed in adits. These adits were formed naturally and later expanded by Austrian engineers. The adits had firing ports on top, which were closed with turf shields from air observers. Also, some researchers (O. Korchynskyi) consider these adits part of the Stilsko settlement.
Forward artillery observers were stationed at Mount Maliavka and Trostyanets heights. All forts and observation posts were connected by telephone with the fire control center that was in a pillbox near Mykolaiv on Mount Stizhok.
Fort № 1 and Fort № 2 were covered with field fortifications with 104-mm field howitzer batteries, 76.5-mm cannons, and machine-gun nests on Lysa Hora and the area of Uhliaryshche. The remains of underground concrete casemates for warehouses and infirmaries, the underground galleries with remnants of concrete floors, and the remains of batteries and machine-gun nests have been preserved.
However, the construction of the fortress was not completed and it did not entirely fulfill its purposeas the plans for fortifications became known to the enemy due to Russian intelligence.
In 1919, the divisions of Ukrainian Galician Army restrained the offensive of Polish divisions on fortifications ofthe Mykolaiv fortress.
Two underground hiding places (kryivka), where Ukrainian Insurgent Army soldiers were hiding, were located on the territory of the Mykolaiv fortress until the end of 1954.
Today, Fort № 1 and Fort № 2 of the Mykolaiv fortress are preserved almost completely. They are included in the register of the Ministry of Culture of Ukraine as a historical monument of local significance.
Field games and excursions organized by the youth scout organization Plast are held on the territory of the fortress.
«Palace of Rzewuski-Lanckoronski Family»— architectural monument of XVIII-ХІХ centuries
In 1631, Lviv district judge (iudex terrestris) Stanisław Rzewuski married Anna—daughter of Ian Czerniewski and granddaughter of Matvii, the first owner of the city—and received Rozdil as adowry.
Around 1740, Michal Jozef Rzewuski built a grand lordly residence there. This was a brick palacenamed Frankopil after the name of wife Franciszka of Cetnerowie family. The palace was built in the French Renaissance style after the fashion of castles of the Loire Valley.
The residence was surrounded by a park, which had a regular character. Many exotic plants appeared there later.
After Rzewuski family, the estate became the property of Lanckoronski family, who owned it until 1939. In 1874, Antoni Lanckoronski began the reconstruction of the palace, which was carried out under the direction of famous Lviv architect Julian Zachariewicz. The palace was completed and expanded. In 1904, French architect Charles Baujou merged these buildings with the old building. Before the beginning of World War I, the left (eastern) wing of the palace was built according to the project of the architect Luntval from Silesia.
The palace was famous for its art collection. It is believed that Michal Jozef Rzewuski was the founder of the collection. He brought there art objects from other ancestral estates. Under Karol Antoni Lanckoronski, the collection was so large that it competed with the collection of Emperor Franz Joseph.
There were old and new weapons, oriental carpets and western tapestries, porcelain, a library of 20 thousand volumes, an art gallery with works by Raphael and Rembrandt. Lanckoronski compiled a collection of photographs of the most valuable works of art from the world's most famous museums, which numbered 120 thousand pieces.
On the eve of World War II, many exhibits were taken to the Palais Lanckoroński in Vienna, where they were requisitioned and later settled in the funds of the Royal Castle in Warsaw and the Wawel Royal Castle in Krakow. The antiquities that remained in Rozdil were taken to the Hermitage Museum and the Odessa Archaeological Museum after the nationalization of the estate in 1940. Due to the efforts of Borys Voznytskyi, the director of Lviv National Art Gallery, the last fragments of art collection left the Lanckoronski family estate a few years ago. Among them were a marble figure of Mars of the II century, an ancient sculpture of a woman with sacrificial bowl (II century BC), and a portrait of a Roman woman, that for many years were considered plaster copies of ancient sculptures.
In Soviet times, a sanatorium specializing in the treatment of digestive diseases was opened there.
As of November 2020, the palace is in a very abandoned, sometimes half-ruined, condition, and needs reconstruction.